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Rosalia Lombardo


The cover of the pamphlet, featuring Rosalia Lombardo, sold at the Capuchin Catacombs in Palermo, ItalyOne of the last bodies laid to rest in the Catacombs of the Capuchin monks in Palermo, Italy, was Rosalia Lombardo. Her preserved corpse is the most famous of the 8,000 bodies once found in the catacombs. Only two years old when she died on December 6, 1920, apparently of a bronchial infection, Rosalia has gained fame because of the excellent preservation of her body. She is often referred to as "The Sleeping Beauty."

Here is a YouTube video that advertises a book about Rosalia. I am not promoting the book, but the video offers some vintage shots of Palermo and the catacombs and gives a better sense of what a visit is like.


Background of her embalmer

Her embalmer was Professor Alfredo Salafia, an Italian chemist who discovered a way to preserve bodies using a special formula. Starting first with animals then people, Salafia perfected his process. Eventually, he embalmed his own father. 

Once word spread about his special embalming abilities, the relatives of many famous people began to contact him. These included Francisco Crispi (Italian premier, whose poorly preserved body was re-constituted by Salafia in 1905) and Cardinal Michaelangelo Celesia (1904).

In 1910 he tried to launch The Salafia Permanent Method Embalming Company to assist American funeral directors. To demonstrate his technique, he came to the United States and embalmed the unclaimed body of  a recently deceased man at the Eclectic Medical College in New York. According to Christine Quigley's book, Modern Mummies: The Preservation of the Human Body in the Twentieth Century (which remains the best source of information about Salafia and Rosalia Lombardo), the man "had died some ten days earlier and his body exhibited black and green areas on the face and neck. Fifteen gallons of Salafia's embalming fluid were injected  distally into the right common carotid artery without draining the blood, treating the cavities, or carrying out secondary injections." Then the body was stored without refrigeration, though the exact location is apparently not recorded. It is safe to assume, however, that it would have been kept in a cool place.

Six months later, the body was dissected. Salafia's embalming technique had done the trick: his green and black patches on the skin had pretty much disappeared. What's more, "The body was well-preserved, with the skin firm, and moderately hard and dry. No odor of decomposition, or fecal odor, was present, only the chemical odor of the embalming fluid." 

In September 1910, a second body was embalmed in Syracuse New York. The deceased, however, had suffered from arteriosclerosis and the embalmer  (Professor Achille Salomone, a nephew of Salafia) was unable to inject more than six quarts  of the fluid. Six months later, when the body was dissected, attendees concluded that Salafia's method worked wherever it was able to penetrate the tissue (which wasn't universally possible). According to embalmers, this is still the case with injected fluid. In 1911, his company began to sell the embalming liquid to American funeral parlors. 

The details of his life from this point are vague. A year later, his fluid was no longer advertised, and Dr. Salafia was back in Italy. In 1920 he embalmed the body of Rosalia. Salafia died in 1933 without releasing the secret of his embalming fluid.


The secret embalming fluid

Researchers figured that Salafia's formula was most likely an arsenic-based treatment, which was popular at the time that Salafia was perfecting his embalming process. According to the Handbook of Death & Dying by Clifton D. Bryant, Salafia was a student of Dr. Tranchini from Naples who was a proponent of arsenic-based embalming. Tranchini's formula used one pound of dry arsenic dissolved in wine to create a two-gallon solution. It was then injected into the femoral or carotid artery. Many believed  that Salafia's method was a variation of this formula.

In fact, arsenic was not part of the formula. Recently Italian biological anthropologist, Dario Piombino-Mascali of the Institute for Mummies and the Iceman in Bolzano tracked down the formula by contacting Salafia's living relatives and asking for permission to search his papers. Among the papers was a handwritten account in which Salafia recorded  the formula that he used to preserve Rosalia's body: formalin, zinc salts, alcohol, salicylic acid, and glycerin. 

Here's how the formula worked, according to an article on National Geographic.com: formalin (a mix of formaldehyde and water) was used to kill bacteria; alcohol dried Rosalia's body; glycerin stopped the body from drying out too much; and salicylic acid stopped the growth of fungus.

But, according to Melissa Johnson Williams, executive director of the American Society of Embalmers, "it was the zinc salts that were most responsible for Rosalia's amazing state of preservation. Zinc, which is no longer used by embalmers in the United States. '[Zinc] gave her rigidity,' Williams said. 'You could take her out of the casket prop her up, and she would stand by herself.' " 


A lithograph of the interior of St. Rosalia's shrine in Palermo

Rosalia Lombardo shares her name with Saint Rosalia, the patron saint of Palermo. Saint-to-be Rosalia spent the better part of her life in a cavern, where she died in 1170. Many subsequent miracles are attributed to Rosalia, the first and most important of which occurred in July 1624 when a plague was ravaging Palermo. Her well-preserved body was discovered at that time in the cave; this discovery coincided with the end of the epidemic. Many small shrines honoring Saint Rosalia are visible throughout Palermo, but the Santuario di Santa Rosalia is the ultimate shrine. It is in the cave where her preserved body was discovered. This connection makes little Rosalia, the "Sleeping Beauty," an even more-beloved icon.

 Saint Rosalia's statue in the shrine of Santa Rosalia


Where to see her 

The Capuchin Catacombs as shown in an old postcard

Rosalia can be seen at the Capuchin Catacombs in Palermo, Italy. Her glass-covered coffin is located in a small chapel at the end of the self-guided catacomb tour. During my last visit, her face was not visible through the glass and visitors were not permitted to enter the chapel for a closer look. The glass case appeared rather grimy, and it was not possible to see Rosalia's face with any clarity. Photography was also not permitted.


Where to find more information about

Modern Mummies: The Preservation of the Human Body in the Twentieth Century by Christine Quigley contains a number of pages about the Capuchin Catacombs and Rosalia Lombardo. It is the best source of information about Rosalia and Professor Salafia.

The Scientific Study of Mummies includes a brief mention of Rosalia.

You can also purchase a 192-page Italian book about Rosalia entitled Rosalia per sempre (Italian Edition).

An excellent DVD about Rosalia and other Italian mummies, entitled Italy's Mystery Mummies is available from National Geogrphic.