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Mummies of the Pharaohs

Many people want to know where the mummies of the pharaohs can be found. 

To help you track them down, here is a list of the rulers whose mummies have been located and identified. Please be aware that this is not a complete list of pharaohs because many of their mummies have not been discovered.

NOTE: Pharaohs usually had (at least) three names: a Horus name (the royal name), a personal name, and later (after the Greeks came to call) a Greek name--so not every writer uses the same name for a pharaoh. In the following table, I have sometimes given more than one name for a pharaoh (to help you in your research).

Dynasty 1

Djer: Only the mummified wrist of Djer (or one of his wives) was found; now lost

 

Dynasty 3

Netjerkhet or Djoser: Part of Djoser's mummy is in the collection of Qasr el-Aini in Cairo

 

Dynasty 4

Nebmaet or Senefru: Part of Senefru's mummy is in the collection of Qasr el-Aini in Cairo

Menkaure or Mykerinos: Part of Menkaure's mummy may be in the collection of the British Museum in London

 

Dynasty 5

Shepseskare or Isi: Part of Isi's mummy is in the collection of Qasr el-Aini in Cairo

Djedkare or Isesi: The left portion of Isesi's mummified body is in the collection of Qasr el-Aini in Cairo

Wadjtawy or Unas: In 1880, Maspero discovered Unas' mummified, linen-wrapped, and well-preserved left arm and hand along with skull fragments; Cairo Museum

 

Dynasty 6

Seheteptawy or Teti: His poorly-mummified shoulder and accompanying arm were found; Cairo Museum

Pepi I: Part of Pepi I's mummy is in the collection of the Cairo Museum

Merenre or Nemtyemsaf I: Uncertain; a naked mummy thought to be Menenre was discovered in 1881. Preservation technique is at odds with the known mummification practices at time of Menenre's death; Cairo Museum

 

Dynasty 11

Mentuhotep II: Only a few of his bones survive in the collection of the British Museum; two of his royal wives fared better--both of their mummies are in the collection of Qasr el-Aini in Cairo

 

Dynasty 13

Hor: Hor's mummy was only a skeleton (except for the head with its unremoved brain); Cairo Museum

 

Dynasty 17

Taa II or Seqenenre: He died in battle, which his mummy clearly shows. Poorly mummified (probably because this took place near the battlefield) Known for having a good set of teeth (unusual among Egyptian royalty); Cairo Museum

 

Dynasty 18

Ahmose I or Ahmosis I: His brain was removed in unusual way: through the neck to the base of the skull; the mummified body of Ahmose-Nefertiry, Ahmose's wife, has also been found. When unwrapped, she smelled badly, most likely because her body had been allowed to decay somewhat before mummification. Both are in the collection of the Cairo Museum

Amenhotep I or Amenophis I: His mummy abused by graverobbers, it was rewrapped, recoffined, and reburied in the 21st Dynasty. The mummy of his wife (and sister) Meryetamun was also desecrated by ancient graverobbers; both are in the holdings of the Cairo Museum.

Thutmose I or Tuthmosis I: The mummy said to be Thutmose I has its arms along its sides. Unfortunately, other mummies of pharaohs from the 18th Dynasty had their arms crossed across the chest. Researchers are doubtful that the mummy is actually Thutmose; Cairo Museum

Thutmose II or Tuthmosis II: Ransacked by graverobbers, Thutmose II's mummy was rewrapped and reburied at a later date. Mummy is covered with "scabs" which may have been a mummymaker's mistake rather than signs of a disease. Well-groomed finger and toenails; Cairo Museum

Thutmose III or Tuthmosis III: Also damaged by graverobbers, Thutmose III's mummy was so ruined that later mummymakers used wooden splints tied to what was left of the body to reinforce it; Cairo Museum

Amenhotep II or Amenophis II: Robbed by ancient graverobbers--and later by modern ones--the mummy of Amenhotep II was finally sent by train to the Cairo Museum where it remains today.

Thutmose IV or Tuthmosis IV: Very thin (perhaps from a disease), Thutmose IV's mummy was also robbed. Eventually, it was rewrapped and moved to Amenhotep II's tomb, though during the process the pharaoh's feet broke off. Pierced ears (the first pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty to have them); Cairo Museum

Amenhotep III or Amenophis III: Badly damaged, Amenhotep III's head is mostly a skull (no flesh). Near the time of his death, he suffered from obesity and severe dental problems. Perhaps paving the way for later mummymaking methods, mummymakers used their best methods to construct his mummy (packed with resin and linen and molded); Cairo Museum

Smenkhkare: It's unclear whether this is truly Smenkhkare's mummy or not--because it has become only a skeleton; Cairo Museum

Tutankhamun: Intact upon its discovery, Tutankhamun's mummy was severely damaged both by the mummification process and the unwrapping and abuse by  Howard Carter & Associates. Now back in the tomb in the Valley of the Kings

 

Dynasty 19

Rameses I: Back in Egypt after an incredible journey

Seti I or Sethos I: The son of Ramesses I, Seti I has a well-preserved head (detached from a badly battered body by graverobbers); Cairo Museum

Rameses II: Researchers who know report that Ramesses II has the worst set of teeth of any royal mummy. Ramesses II is also the only royal mummy to have traveled on its own passport to Paris (for research and refurbishing); Cairo Museum. The mummy of his wife Nefertari barely survives : only her knees remain in the Egyptian Museum in Turin, Italy.

Merenptah: Ancient tomb robbers hacked his mummy apart with a knife or an ax looking for loot; Cairo Museum

Seti II or Sethos II: Greedy tombrobbers broke into Seti II's skull looking for valuables, but they missed a number of amulets on his legs. Wrapped with linen bandages and two shirts; Cairo Museum

Siptah: Nearly destroyed by graverobbers, Siptah's mummy is packed with lichen (rather than linen). Unwrappers found a black line painted across his forehead. A shortened left leg means that Siptah may have had cerebral palsy or polio; Cairo Museum

 

Dynasty 20

Sethnakhte: May have been found, but records are unclear.

Rameses III: The Mummy Movie (original version) based the appearance of its mummy monster on Ramesses III, a murder victim (a record of his murderers' trial still survives). Linen-packed eye sockets, pierced ears; Cairo Museum

Rameses IV: The only royal mummy to have onions in his eye sockets; nostrils were covered with onion skin (researchers think these may have been an antiseptic); Cairo Museum

Rameses V: Not in good shape when he died, Ramesses V had smallpox. His internal organs were replaced in the body (not common until the 21st Dynasty) with sawdust; Cairo Museum

Rameses VI: Destroyed by graverobbers (missing skull but not the facial skin, hacked abdomen, detached arms--the right arm missing), ancient Egyptian mummymakers tried to put his back together again. If you see a picture of this unwrapped mummy, you'll know in a second how badly it was damaged. But mummymakers added two extra hands to their restoration--perhaps to make up for the desecration that took place; Cairo Museum

Rameses XI: Missing a nose and sporting cracked skin, the mummy of Ramesses IX has seen better days. But it has never been examined; Cairo Museum

 

Dynasty 21

Pinudhem I: Like Rameses IX, this mummy has never been examined; may be in the Cairo Museum

Psusennes I: Undamaged by graverobbers, the mummy had the bad luck of being buried in a damp tomb which caused the destruction of the wrappings and the skin. But the golden mark and gold mummy-board--and a silver coffin--were undamaged; in the collection of Qasr el-Aini in Cairo. The mummy of his wife, Nesikhonsu, is one of the best embalmed mummies of the 21st Dynasty, according to Ikram and Dodson; also in the Cairo Museum

Amenemopet: A damp tomb caused the destruction of Amenemopet's mummy; in the collection of Qasr el-Aini in Cairo

 

Dynasty 22

Shoshenq II: Flooding and a damp tomb destroyed almost everything that wasn't metal or bone in Shoshenq II's mummy, but researchers could still tell that he died of meningitis; in the collection of Qasr el-Aini in Cairo

Harsiese: Only his skull and an arm bone survive; the skull shows signs of an operation (trepanation?); in the collection of Qasr el-Aini in Cairo

 

Dynasty 25

Taharqa: May have been found, but records are unclear

 

Dynasty 29

Nepherites I: May have been found, but records are unclear

The above list is based on information found in Ikram and Dodson's books, The Royal Mummies The Egyptian Museum and The Mummy in Ancient Egypt: Equipping the Dead for Eternity, as well as Clayton's Chronicle of the Pharaohs: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt.