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Dynasties of Ancient Egypt

Life was often chaotic in ancient Egypt, and many times it was overrun by armies from other lands. Its history was often sketchy, too, and exact dates when a ruler reigned or even when events happened are not always known...precisely.

Pick up five different books on ancient Egypt and you may find five different dates for the reigns of early pharaohs. In fact, dates up to 663 BC are only approximate and based on the best guesses of many different researchers.

Dates of Egyptian dynasties provided by three different books are reported below to give you a sense of the variation possible. They were taken from Ikram and Dodson's The Mummy in Ancient Egypt: Equipping the Dead for Eternity; Silverman's Ancient Egypt; and Clayton's Chronicle of the Pharaohs: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt.

Here are the main time periods (and dynasties) in ancient Egyptian history:

 

Time Period

Dates according to these authors:

Dynasty

Ikram

Silverman

Clayton

Early Dynastic Period
3150 - 3050 BC
3100 - 3000 BC
3150 - 3050 BC
0
3050 - 2813 BC
3000 - 2800 BC
3050 - 2890 BC
1
2813 - 2663 BC
2800 -2675 BC
2890 - 2686 BC
2
Old Kingdom
2663 - 2597 BC
2675 - 2625 BC
2686 - 2613 BC
3
2597 - 2471 BC
2625 - 2500 BC
2613 - 2498 BC
4
2471 - 2355 BC
2500 - 2350 BC
2498 - 2345 BC
5
2355 - 2195 BC
2350 - 2170 BC
2345 - 2181 BC
6
First Intermediate Period
2195 - 2160 BC
2170 - 2130 BC
2181 - 2160 BC
7 & 8
2160 - 2040 BC
2130 - 1980 BC
2160 - 2040 BC
9 & 10
Middle Kingdom
2160 - 1994 BC
2081 - 1938 BC
2134 - 1991 BC
11
1994 - 1781 BC
1938 - 1759 BC
1991 - 1782 BC
12
1781 - 1650 BC
1759 - 1630 BC
1782 - 1650 BC
13 & 14
Second Intermediate Period
1650 - 1535 BC
1630 - 1523 BC
1663 - 1555 BC
15 & 16
1650 - 1549 BC
1630 - 1539 BC
1663 - 1570 BC
17
New Kingdom
1549 - 1298 BC
1539 - 1292 BC
1570 - 1293 BC
18
1298 - 1187 BC
1292 - 1190 BC
1293 - 1185 BC
19
1187 - 1069 BC
1190 - 1075 BC
1185 - 1070 BC
20
Third Intermediate Period
1064 - 940 BC
1075- 945 BC
1069 - 945 BC
21
948 - 743 BC
945 - 712 BC
945 - 715 BC
22
743 - 715 BC
838 - 712 BC
818 - 715 BC
23
731 - 717 BC
727 - 712 BC
727 - 715 BC
24
752 - 656 BC
760 - 656 BC
747 - 656 BC
25
Late Period
664 - 525 BC
26
525 - 424 BC
525 - 405 BC
525 - 404 BC
27
404 - 399 BC
409 - 399 BC
404 - 399 BC
28
399 - 380 BC
29
380 - 342 BC
381 - 343 BC
380-343 BC
30
342 - 332 BC
343 - 332 BC
31
Hellenestic Period
332 - 310 BC
332 - 305 BC
32
310 - 30 BC
305 - 30 BC
33
Roman Period
30 BC - AD 395
Not Given
Not Given
Roman